The word ‘control’  in  UCD implies that the user plays an active part in the process of  transferring data from one party to another, and thus can stop the transfer by declining to play that part.  For example, an individual controls whether to take a bank note from their wallet and hand it over to […]


‘Consent’ means simply that an individual agrees that data can be transferred between parties but plays no other part in the process. In payment systems, for example, an individual  consents to a merchant taking payment by direct debit (by completing a direct debit mandate). Consent is best understood by contrast with ‘Control’, defined elsewhere in […]

Will a digital wallet cost me anything ?

No. The costs of running the UCD infrastructure will be paid by the service providers who choose to interact with you via your digital wallet. And they will be happy to pay in return for a better experience for their customers, lower costs, and easier compliance with data protection legislation.

Why should I, as an individual, want a UCD-style digital wallet ?

It won’t change your life. But doing stuff on line will gradually become better. You won’t have to manage as many usernames and passwords, or other authentication mechansims. You will enjoy bank-grade security, & better privacy. And life will become easier, since you will be able to do more things online more easily, all based […]

Why do I need a wallet provider?

There is a purist approach to UCD in which individuals don’t need a wallet provider, and rely instead only on software installed only on their own device. While it might be possible to make this work technically, there are two main reasons why we think there is a need to involve wallet providers The first […]

Will I have to prove my identity in order to get a digital wallet ?

No. Just like signing up for a conventional account on any website, the only thing that an individual must prove to get a digital wallet is that they are human (probably by solving a captcha). Later, when using a wallet to set up an online relationship with a service provider, it’s the service provider which […]

How many wallets can I have?

As many as you like. But – just as too many bank accounts or wallets becomes a nuisance – so most people will find that it’s easier to have just one or two digital wallets. Otherwise, they may find that the data that they need to share via one wallet is only present in a […]

Will I have to have, or use, a unique identity / number?

No. UCD will be designed to avoid – at the infrastructure level – any unique identifiers for individuals, making it more difficult for counterparties to exchange personal data between their back offices without involvement of the individual. Instead, they will need  to ask the individual, via their wallet account, to disclose the data. Note, however, […]

Will my wallet provider (or others) have access to my data?

Not in normal use. A wallet provider will not have the right  to look inside an individual’s wallet or make any use of the data therein. However,  occasions may arise where a wallet provider, probably working on behalf of others (such as the State or a relative) needs to gain access to such data.  In […]